ထႅမ်းပလဵတ်ႉ:inflection of

လုၵ်ႉတီႈ ဝိၵ်ႇသျိၼ်ႇၼရီႇ မႃး

inflection ၶွင် term:


This template is used to create definition lines for inflected (non-lemma) forms. For example, goes, going, went and gone are non-lemma forms of the lemma go, and {{inflection of}} can be used to show the relationship between the lemma and respective non-lemma forms.

This template takes the same general parameters as {{l}} and {{m}}, and it uses the same post-processing on the parameters. This includes script detection, removing diacritics, processing embedded links, and so on.

Parameters[မႄးထတ်း]

|1= (required)
The language code of the lemma, of which this term is an inflection. See Wiktionary:List of languages. The parameter |lang= is a deprecated synonym; please do not use. If this is used, all numbered parameters move down by one.
|2= (required)
The lemma of which this term is an inflection. A link is created to the lemma, similar to links created using {{l}} and {{m}} (but normally displayed in upright boldface). To specify more than one lemma, separate them by commas. Inline modifiers can also be attached to individual lemmas to specify transliteration, qualifiers, etc. See the section below on multiple lemmas and inline modifiers.
|3= or |alt=
The alternative display form of the lemma. This works like the third parameter of {{l}} and {{m}}.
|4= (required), |5= ... etc.
One or more grammar tags to show. These give the definition by describing the relevant grammatical properties of this inflected form. A grammar tag can potentially be any text, but certain tags such as nominative, feminine, first-person or subjunctive that are recognized internally will automatically be linked to the appropriate entry in Appendix:Glossary (or in some cases, to the relevant Wiktionary or Wikipedia entry). As an example, nominative is displayed as nominative, with an appropriate link. Certain tags are recognised as shortcuts and are equivalent to spelling out the tag. For example, 1 is equivalent to first-person; both will be displayed as first-person. Similarly, f is equivalent to feminine, and nom is equivalent to nominative. The full, up-to-date list of recognized tags and their shortcuts and display forms is specified below.
Multiple tags are normally separated by spaces, so that e.g. nom|f|s will be displayed as nominative feminine singular. However, when punctuation characters are used as tags, they will be displayed appropriately for that punctuation character. For example, nom|,|with|3|s|object will display as nominative, with third-person singular object (i.e. without a space preceding the comma). Among the punctuation characters recognized and handled correctly are comma, colon, parens, brackets, slash, and hyphen. The full list can be found below.
It is also possible to put // separators between one or more tags or shortcuts to create a list separated by slashes. For example, writing nom//acc will expand to nominative/accusative, and writing nom//acc//voc//dat will expand to nominative/accusative/vocative/dative.
The inflection tag ; is recognized specially and is used to separate two inflections of the same word. Sets of tags separated by a semicolon tag will be displayed on separate lines. See examples below.
|t= or |gloss=
A gloss or short translation of the lemma. Normally not needed, but can be used to disambiguate homonymous lemmas, i.e. multiple lemmas that happen to be spelled the same way, and where the inflected term may be a form of only one of the lemmas. For example, rang is the past tense of ring (to sound (e.g. a bell)) but not of the homonymous verb ring (to surround), whose past tense is ringed. In such cases, you can also use the |id= parameter to link the lemma to the appropriate section of the page.
|tr=
Transliteration of the lemma, if written in a non-Latin script and the automatically-generated transliteration is either missing or incorrect.
|ts=
Transcription of the lemma, for non-Latin-script terms whose transliteration is markedly different from the actual pronunciation. Should not be used for IPA pronunciations. See {{l}}.
|g=
Gender and number of the lemma. See Module:gender and number for details. To specify multiple gender/number specs for a single lemma, separate them with a comma. Normally not needed, but could be used e.g. to disambiguate homonymous lemmas; see the discussion under the |t= parameter for more information.
|p= or |POS=
Categorization part-of-speech tag of the lemma, or an abbreviation thereof (see below). Not displayed; used *ONLY* for categorization purposes, depending on the particular inflection tags and the language in question. Note that there are related templates {{noun form of}}, {{verb form of}} and {{adj form of}}, which are exactly like {{inflection of}} but automatically set (respectively) the |p=n, |p=v and |p=a parameters.
|pos=
Displayed part-of-speech indication for lemma. See {{l}}. *NOT* the same as the categorization part of speech tag in |p=. The value of this parameter is displayed in parens after the lemma link, similarly to how other links work. Rarely needed.
|lit=
A literal translation for the lemma. See {{l}}. Rarely needed.
|id=
A sense ID for the lemma, which links to anchors on the page set by the {{senseid}} template. Can be used e.g. to disambiguate homonymous lemmas; see the discussion under the |t= parameter for more information.
|sc=
The script code (see Wiktionary:Scripts) for the script that the lemma is written in. See {{l}}. Rarely needed as it is autodetected (usually correctly).
|enclitic=
One or more enclitics that are attached to the inflected form being described. This is useful in agglutinative languages such as Finnish that support enclitics being attached to inflected forms. See Example 5 below. To specify more than one enclitic, separate them by commas. Inline modifiers can also be attached to individual enclitics to specify transliteration, qualifiers, etc. See the section below on inline modifiers.

Multiple lemmas and inline modifiers[မႄးထတ်း]

In some cases, a term is the inflection of multiple lemmas, which work alike and are alternative forms of each other. In this case, rather than duplicating the inflection tags on separate lines with separate calls to {{inflection of}} (one per lemma), you can list multiple lemmas in a single call to {{inflection of}}. To do this, separate the lemmas with a comma (without a following space). You can attach inline modifiers to each individual lemma in place of separate params such as |tr= and |t=, similarly to {{col}} (and variants such as {{col3}}, {{der4}}, etc.); {{syn}} (and variants such as {{ant}}); etc. The general syntax looks like Изабе́лла<tr:Izabɛ́lla><t:Isabelle> to specify modifiers such as transliterations, glosses and qualifiers. With multiple lemmas, the syntax looks like Изабе́ла<tr:Izabɛ́la>,Изабе́лла<tr:Izabɛ́lla><t:Isabelle>. See Example 3 below for an example that uses inline modifiers.

The following modifiers are recognized; see {{link}} for the exact meaning of these modifiers.

  • t: gloss
  • tr: transliteration
  • ts: transcription, for languages where the transliteration and pronunciation are markedly different
  • q: qualifier, e.g. rare; this appears *BEFORE* the term, parenthesized and italicized
  • qq: qualifier, e.g. rare; this appears *AFTER* the term, parenthesized and italicized
  • g: comma-separated list of gender/number specifications
  • alt: alternative display text
  • pos: part of speech
  • lit: literal meaning
  • id: sense ID; see {{senseid}}
  • sc: script code

Enclitics specified using the |enclitic= parameter can similarly have inline modifiers attached to them. Do not go overboard in the use of these modifiers; it is better in most cases to just specify the bare enclitic and put all the relevant information for the clitic in the linked page. But in some cases it may be necessary to specify e.g. manual transliterations, for languages such as Persian and Hebrew that don't provide automatic transliteration; glosses and/or sense ID's for homonymous enclitics; etc.

Examples[မႄးထတ်း]

Example 1[မႄးထတ်း]

On the page for the Spanish non-lemma form aman:

# {{inflection of|es|amar||3|p|pres|act|ind}}
gives
  1. third-person တူဝ်ၼမ် present active indicative ၶွင် amar

Example 2[မႄးထတ်း]

On the page for the Russian non-lemma form пути́ (putí):

# {{inflection of|ru|путь||gen//dat//pre|s|;|nom//acc|p}}
gives
  1. inflection ၶွင် путь (putʹ):
    1. genitive, dative, and prepositional တူဝ်ၼိုင်ႈ
    2. nominative and accusative တူဝ်ၼမ်

Note here how the // separator separates tags when multiple tags apply, and ; separates inflections. When ; is used, the display format changes to a multi-line format, as shown. Furthermore, since the lemma is in a non-Latin script in a language with automatic transliteration, that transliteration is automatically shown.

Example 3[မႄးထတ်း]

On the page for the Japanese non-lemma form 飛び移らず (tobiutsurazu):

# {{inflection of|ja|飛び移る<tr:tobiutsuru>||neg|continuative}}
gives
  1. negative continuative ၶွင် 飛び移る<tr:tobiutsuru>

Note here how an unrecognized tag continuative is used. Such tags need to be spelled out in full, and won't be linked to anything. Furthermore, in this case, although Japanese uses a non-Latin script, no automatic transliteration is available, so the transliteration needs to be manually supplied if desired.

Example 4[မႄးထတ်း]

On the page for the Russian non-lemma form дости́гнем (dostígnem):

# {{inflection of|ru|дости́гнуть,дости́чь||1|p|fut|ind|pfv}}
gives
  1. first-person တူဝ်ၼမ် future indicative perfective ၶွင် дости́гнуть,дости́чь (dostígnutʹ,dostíčʹ)

Here, дости́чь (dostíčʹ) is an alternative infinitive form of the lemma дости́гнуть (dostígnutʹ), so we specify both lemmas, comma-separated, rather than duplicating the {{inflection of}} call on two lines.

Example 5[မႄးထတ်း]

On the page for the Finnish non-lemma form kävelisinköhän:

# {{infl of|fi|kävellä||1|s|pres|cond|enclitic=-ko,-han|t=to walk}}
gives
  1. Lua error in မေႃႇၵျူး:form_of/templates at line 97: The parameter "enclitic" is not used by this template..

This particular term is a first-singular present conditional form of the verb kävellä (to walk), with two enclitics attached to the end.

Example 6[မႄးထတ်း]

On the page for the Gothic non-lemma form 𐍅𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌴𐌹 (witāndei):

# {{infl of|got|𐍅𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽𐌳𐍃<tr:witānds>||nom|f|s|prespart-of=𐍅𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽<tr:witān><t:to observe>}}
gives
  1. Lua error in မေႃႇၵျူး:form_of/templates at line 97: The parameter "prespart-of" is not used by this template..

The lemma page contains two different verbs with the same spelling, 𐍅𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 (witan, to know) and 𐍅𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 (witān, to observe) (with a long vowel). As a result, the page for the above non-lemma form has entries for the same two verbs, and it is necessary to supply the transliteration of the long-vowel variant along with a gloss to disambiguate the two.

Example 7[မႄးထတ်း]

On the page for the Ukrainian noun пере́гляд (peréhljad):

# {{infl of|uk|перегляда́ти<g:impf>,перегля́нути<g:pf>,перегля́діти<g:pf>||vnoun}}
  1. verbal noun ၶွင် перегляда́ти<g:impf>,перегля́нути<g:pf>,перегля́діти<g:pf> (perehljadáty<g:impf>,perehljánuty<g:pf>,perehljádity<g:pf>)

This example shows the use of inline modifiers with multiple lemmas.

Inflection tags[မႄးထတ်း]

The following non-language-specific inflection tags are available for use in describing inflections as per Module:form of/data (more common tags) and Module:form of/data2 (less common tags):

Canonical tag Shortcut(s) Display form
Person (more common)
first-person 1 first-person
impersonal impers impersonal
second-person 2 second-person
third-person 3 third-person
Number (more common)
dual d, du dual
multiple-possession mpos multiple-possession
single-possession spos single-possession
တူဝ်ၼမ် p, pl တူဝ်ၼမ်
တူဝ်ၼိုင်ႈ s, sg တူဝ်ၼိုင်ႈ
Number (less common)
collective col collective
distributive paucal dpau distributive paucal
paucal pau paucal
singulative sgl singulative
trial tri trial
Gender (more common)
common c common
natural masculine natm natural masculine
nonvirile nv nonvirile
ၶေႃႈသဵင်မႄႈ f ၶေႃႈသဵင်မႄႈ
ၶေႃႈသဵင်ၽူႈ m ၶေႃႈသဵင်ၽူႈ
ၶေႃႈသဵင်ႁၢမ်းၽူႈမႄႈ n ၶေႃႈသဵင်ႁၢမ်းၽူႈမႄႈ
Gender (less common)
natural feminine natf natural feminine
virile vr virile
Animacy (more common)
animate an animate
inanimate in, inan inanimate
personal pr, pers personal
Tense/aspect (more common)
aorist aor, aori aorist
future fut, futr future
imperfect impf, imperf imperfect
imperfective impfv, imperfv imperfective
non-past npast non-past
past past
past historic phis past historic
perfect perf perfect
perfective pfv, perfv perfective
pluperfect plup, pluperf pluperfect
present pres present
preterite pret preterite
progressive prog progressive
Tense/aspect (less common)
anterior ant anterior
complete compl complete
contemplative contem contemplative
continuous cont continuous
frequentative freq frequentative
habitual hab habitual
iterative iter iterative
posterior post posterior
prospective pros prospective
recently complete rcompl recently complete
semelfactive semf semelfactive
Mood (more common)
conditional cond conditional
imperative imp, impr, impv imperative
indicative ind, indc, indic indicative
jussive juss jussive
optative opta, opt optative
subjunctive sub, subj subjunctive
Mood (less common)
cohortative coho, cohort cohortative
desiderative des, desid desiderative
energetic ener energetic
inferential infer, infr inferential
intensive inten intensive
potential potn potential
quotative quot quotative
renarrative renarr renarrative
volitive voli volitive
Voice/valence (more common)
active act, actv active
causative caus causative
ditransitive ditr ditransitive
intransitive intr, vi intransitive
mediopassive mp, mpass, mpasv, mpsv mediopassive
middle mid, midl middle
passive pass, pasv passive
reflexive refl reflexive
transitive tr, vt transitive
Voice/valence (less common)
antipassive apass, apasv, apsv antipassive
applicative appl applicative
autonomous auton autonomous
reciprocal recp, recip reciprocal
Non-finite (more common)
gerund ger gerund
infinitive inf infinitive
participle part, ptcp participle
personal infinitive pinf personal infinitive
possessive poss possessive
supine sup supine
verbal noun vnoun verbal noun
Non-finite (less common)
būdinys budinys būdinys
conjunctive conj conjunctive
connegative conn, conneg connegative
converb converb
debitive deb debitive
gerundive gerv gerundive
padalyvis padalyvis
participle of necessity partnec participle of necessity
pusdalyvis pusdalyvis
verbal of necessity verbnec verbal of necessity
Case (more common)
ablative abl ablative
accusative acc accusative
dative dat dative
genitive gen genitive
instrumental ins instrumental
locative loc locative
nominative nom nominative
prepositional pre, prep prepositional
vocative voc vocative
Case (less common)
abessive abe abessive
absolutive absv absolutive
adessive ade adessive
adverbial case advc adverbial
allative all allative
associative ass, assoc associative
benefactive ben, bene benefactive
causal cauc, causc causal
causal-final cfi, cfin causal-final
comitative com comitative
comparative case comc comparative
delative del delative
direct dir direct
distributive dis, dist, distr distributive
elative ela elative
ergative erg ergative
essive ess essive
essive-formal esf, efor essive-formal
essive-modal esm, emod essive-modal
illative ill illative
indirect indir indirect
inessive ine inessive
instructive ist instructive
limitative lim limitative
locative-qualitative lqu, lqua locative-qualitative
objective objv objective
oblique obl oblique
partitive ptv, par partitive
prolative pro, prol prolative
sociative soc sociative
subjective subjv, sbjv subjective
sublative sbl, subl sublative
superessive spe, supe superessive
temporal tem, temp temporal
terminative ter, term terminative
translative tra, tran translative
State (more common)
attributive attr attributive
construct cons, construct state construct state
definite def, defn, definite state definite
indefinite indef, indf, indefinite state indefinite
mixed mix mixed
predicative pred predicative
strong str strong
weak wk weak
Degrees of comparison (more common)
comparative degree comd, comparative comparative degree
positive degree posd, positive positive degree
superlative degree supd, superlative superlative degree
Degrees of comparison (less common)
absolute superlative degree asupd, absolute superlative absolute superlative degree
elative degree elad elative degree
equative degree equd, equative equative degree
relative superlative degree rsupd, relative superlative relative superlative degree
Register (less common)
archaic arch archaic
colloquial colloq colloquial
contemporary conty contemporary
dated dated
emphatic emph emphatic
familiar fam familiar
formal formal
informal inform informal
intimate intim intimate
literary lit literary
obsolete obs obsolete
polite pol polite
slang slang
Deixis (less common)
distal dstl distal
medial medl medial
proximal prox, prxl proximal
Clusivity (less common)
exclusive excl exclusive
inclusive incl inclusive
obviative obv obviative
Inflectional class (more common)
pronominal pron pronominal
Attitude (more common)
augmentative aug augmentative
diminutive dim diminutive
pejorative pej pejorative
Attitude (less common)
endearing end endearing
Sound changes (more common)
contracted contracted
Misc grammar (more common)
adjectival adj adjectival
adverbial adv adverbial
dependent dep dependent
form form
independent indep independent
long long
negative neg negative
nominalization nomzn nominalization
nominalized nomz nominalized
root root
short short
simple sim simple
stem stem
Misc grammar (less common)
absolute abs absolute
affirmative aff affirmative
affix af affix
affixal afl affixal
analytic anal, analytical analytic
aspect asp aspect
augmented augmented
circumfix circ, cirf, circf circumfix
circumfixal circl, cirfl, circfl circumfixal
conjunct conjt conjunct
deuterotonic deut deuterotonic
infix infx infix
infixal infxl infixal
non-possessed npossd, npossed, nonpossessed non-possessed
nonfinite nonfin nonfinite
object obj object
periphrastic peri periphrastic
possessed possd, possed possessed
possessive affix posaf, possaf possessive affix
possessive prefix pospref, posspref possessive prefix
possessive suffix possuf possessive suffix
prefix pref prefix
prefixal prefl prefixal
prototonic prot prototonic
relative rel relative
subject sbj subject
suffix suf, suff suffix
suffixal sufl, suffl suffixal
synthetic synth synthetic
tense tense
unaugmented unaugmented
Other tags (more common)
( (
) )
, ,
- -
/ /
: :
[ [
] ]
and and
Other tags (less common)
Multitag shortcuts (more common)
12 first- and second-person
123 first-, second-, and third-person
13 first- and third-person
23 second- and third-person
fn ၶေႃႈသဵင်မႄႈ and ၶေႃႈသဵင်ႁၢမ်းၽူႈမႄႈ
mf ၶေႃႈသဵင်ၽူႈ and ၶေႃႈသဵင်မႄႈ
mfn ၶေႃႈသဵင်ၽူႈ, ၶေႃႈသဵင်မႄႈ, and ၶေႃႈသဵင်ႁၢမ်းၽူႈမႄႈ
mn ၶေႃႈသဵင်ၽူႈ and ၶေႃႈသဵင်ႁၢမ်းၽူႈမႄႈ
List shortcuts (more common)
1d first-person dual
1p first-person တူဝ်ၼမ်
1s first-person တူဝ်ၼိုင်ႈ
2d second-person dual
2p second-person တူဝ်ၼမ်
2s second-person တူဝ်ၼိုင်ႈ
3d third-person dual
3p third-person တူဝ်ၼမ်
3s third-person တူဝ်ၼိုင်ႈ
simple past simple past
simple present simple present
spast simple past
spres simple present

Other items (such as "atelic") may be used as needed, but should be spelled out in full (see examples).

Non-alias shortcuts[မႄးထတ်း]

The following additional non-language-specific shortcuts are available for use in describing inflections as per Module:form of/data (more common shortcuts) and Module:form of/data2 (less common shortcuts):

Script error: The function "non_alias_shortcut_table_t" does not exist.

Lang-specific information[မႄးထတ်း]

The following tables contain all the language-specific information embedded into {{inflection of}}. The following types of information are provided:

  1. Language-specific inflection tags.
  2. Language-specific non-alias shortcuts (where "non-alias" means any shortcut that is not a simple alias for an inflection tag).
  3. Additional parameters that are available for the language in question to display the base lemma where an inflected form (e.g. the comparative, superlative, present participle, past participle, etc.) can in turn be inflected.
  4. Language-specific categories that are added in certain circumstances, depending on the particular inflection tags present (and in some cases, the value of the |POS=/|p= parameter, which supplies the part of speech for categorization purposes). The exact circumstances are not currently listed because they may be somewhat complex, but are described exactly in Module:form of/cats.
  5. Language-specific labels that are added in circumstances similar to those where categories are added, and which are described in Module:form of/cats. Note that some labels may in turn cause categories to be added, just as with other labels. These categories are listed below along with the labels themselves.

Script error: The function "lang_specific_tables_t" does not exist.

Language-independent categorization[မႄးထတ်း]

Depending on the particular tags and on the presence/absence of the |p=/|POS= parameter, language-specific or language-independent categories may be added. The exact conditions under which this happens are described in Module:form of/cats, but the following is a list of all language-independent categories that may be added:

Script error: The function "lang_independent_category_table_t" does not exist.

Language-independent labels[မႄးထတ်း]

Depending on the particular tags and on the presence/absence of the |p=/|POS= parameter, language-specific or language-independent labels may be added, as with categories. The exact conditions under which this happens are described in Module:form of/cats, but the following is a list of all language-independent labels that may be added:

Script error: The function "lang_independent_label_table_t" does not exist.

Part-of-speech tags[မႄးထတ်း]

The following part-of-speech tags are available for use as the |p= or |POS= parameter. Note that either the full (canonical) form or any of the short forms can be used and are equivalent.

Canonical part of speech Shortcut(s)
article art
determiner det
intransitive verb vi
participle part
particle pcl
postposition postp
transitive and intransitive verb vti
transitive verb vt
တိုၼ်ႇ int, intj
မၢႆပၢႆးၼပ်ႉ num
မၢႆပၢႆးၼပ်ႉ ဢေႃႇတီႇၼႄႇလ် onum
မၢႆပၢႆးၼပ်ႉ ၵႃႇတီႇၼႄႇလ် cnum
သၢင်ႈ v, vb
ၵပ်း conj
ၵမ်ႉသၢင်ႈ adv
ၵမ်ႉႁိၵ်ႈ a, adj
ႁိၵ်ႈ n
ႁိၵ်ႈတၢင် pro, pron
ႁိၵ်ႈသုၼ်ႇလဵဝ် pn, proper
ႁဵင်း pre, prep